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팁이 있으니깐 최저임금제가 악영향을 안 미친다? 사회과학

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Despite the topic's importance, the literature on the tipped minimumwage is very limited. Wessels (1993) estimates that allowingrestaurants to use servers' tipped income to satisfy minimum wage requirementswould create at least 360,000 new high-paying jobs and increasetotal income of tipped workers by at least 8%. Total elimination ofthe tip credit, on the other hand, would decrease servers' employment by at least 10%. Wessels (1997) suggests that when a restaurant hiresmore servers, each serves fewer meals, earns less in tips, and thereforehas to be paid a higher wage. Consequently, restaurants have monopsonypower over wages, and over some range a higher minimum wageshould increase servers' employment. He reports that empirical evidenceshows that as the minimum wage is increased, restaurant employmentfirst goes up and then down.

Anderson and Bodvarsson (2005) examine empirically how thetipped minimum wage affects the total income of servers and bartenders.They divide US states to five categories according to the state policy onminimum wage and on tip credit compared to the federal policy. Comparedto states with no minimum wage, only one category (states thathave minimum wage that exceeds the federal and have no tip credit)has higher total income for tipped employees. The results suggest thatminimum wage and tip credit policies designed to boost the income ofservers are generally ineffective.

One important aspect of the tipped minimum wage that has notreceived attention in the literature is its impact on the restaurant'schoice between tipping and a compulsory service charge.6 Restaurantshave the option to add to the bill a compulsory service charge(e.g., 18% of the bill); assuming they inform the customers about thispractice in advance, doing so is legal, and the service charges obtainedare the employer's property and can be used to pay servers the minimumwage (or more) without the limitation that is imposed on tipcredits.7 Many US restaurants, for example, replace tipping with servicecharges for large parties (e.g., six or more diners), and in some cases restaurantsalso replaced tipping with service charges regardless of theparty size. When a restaurant imposes such a service charge, customersunderstand that it replaces tipping and do not tip in additionto the service charge, except in rare cases (and even then, they tipmuch less than they would in the absence of a service charge).



(중략)


The article examines the implications of the tipped minimum wageand points out that we have to consider the possibility that increasing itmight lead restaurants to change from tipping to service charges. Thisresult follows from the desire of restaurants to extract the economicrent enjoyed by waiters under tipping. An increase in the tipped minimumwage raises this rent and enhances the restaurant's willingnessto pay the cost of monitoring servers (which is not required with tippingbut becomes necessary in a service-charge regime) in order to extractthis rent. Because servers are better off in the tipping regime, thepossibility that the restaurant will change from tipping to a servicecharge implies that increasing the tipped minimum wage in an attemptto increase servers' income may achieve the opposite result. Moreover,increasing the tipped minimum wage reduces social welfare. Comparingthe restaurant's choices to the welfare-maximizing regimes, themodel suggests that with a positive minimum wage, when a servicecharge maximizes welfare it is always chosen by the restaurant, butwhen tipping maximizes welfare it may either be chosen or not. Thiscreates a range of parameters where inefficiency exists because the restaurantimplements a service charge whereas the socially optimal regimeis tipping. This inefficiency can be cured by allowing restaurantsto charge servers for the right to work and earn tips; this policy ensuresthat the restaurant will choose the regime (tipping or a service charge)that maximizes social welfare



출처 : http://in.bgu.ac.il/en/fom/Documents/ResearchAbstracts/ResearchAbsts/Azar%20Labour%20Economics%202012%20Tipping%20and%20minimum%20wage.pdf









저 얘기가 어려운 얘기인가(...)


물론 예전의 카드-크루거(1995)처럼 '최저임금제 인상이 고용에 영향을 미치지 않는다'라는 내용의 연구 자료를 들고 온다면 충분히 검토할만한 내용이겠습니다만, 그것도 아니고 단순히 '팁이 있으니깐 쟤네는 다르다' 이러니깐 답이 없네요. 

덧글

  • G-32호 2017/07/06 20:51 # 답글

    한국에는 팁이라는 문화가 술집 여직원에게 취해서 넣어주는게 아니고서야 사실 상 없는 것 취급이라는걸 저 사람은 모르는 걸까요

    다른 나라 사람인건가
  • 트릭스터 2017/07/06 21:33 # 답글

    그래도 팁은 소득세 안내도 되잖아요
  • 터프한 바다코끼리 2017/07/06 23:16 #

    ㅎㅎ 지역에 따라서 계산이 틀립니다.
  • 트릭스터 2017/07/06 23:33 #

    몰래 받고 모른체 하면 ... 안 되는 거구나
  • 터프한 바다코끼리 2017/07/06 23:46 #

    ㅎㅎ 업소에 따라서 개인적으로 팁을 챙기는 경우도 있고 전체 팁을 모아서 주방과 매니저등과 나눠 가지는 등 다양한 분배 방식이 있습니다. 만약 팁을 가지고 장난치다가 걸리면 아주 큰일을 당할 수도 있습니다. 의외로 우리나라 보다 서양에선 이전 직장에서의 평판이나 상관의 추천서등이 굉장히 중요합니다.
  • 터프한 바다코끼리 2017/07/06 23:19 # 답글

    아.. 추가로 요즘은 한인 상대 한인 업소는 예외없이 최소 15%-20% 무조건 요구하는 경우도 많더군요..
  • ivava 2017/08/04 14:34 # 삭제 답글

    oczyszczalnie przydomowe http://m97.pl/z
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